Abstract:Numerical modeling is a time saving and cost-effective alternate of experimental evaluation of structural members. On the other hand, green concrete being of the day is active area of research. Therefore, this research paper presents the numerical modeling of RC green concrete beams under sustained loading. The green concrete was produced using 50% replacement of natural coarse aggregates with demolished old concrete. Multi-variable regression analysis was adopted to predict the numerical equations for long-term deflection and strain from the experimental data of the parameters due to 6-, 9- and 12-month long term loading. Three software NCSS, MATLAB and Microsoft EXCEL were used for the purpose. To check and validate the developed equations six beams were cast using 50% replacement of natural coarse aggregates. Fifty percent of the beams were tested for each 2- and 3-month sustained loading. The obtained results were compared with the results from numerical equations. It is observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with experimental observations with maximum of 10.34% error. Therefore, the numerical equations for deflection and strain presented in this article can be used to estimate the parameters of RC green concrete beams due to long-term sustained loading.
Abstract:This paper is about the use of clay and how the strength reduction can be minimized as the addition of clay decreases the compressive strength in cement composite. The Compressive strength is an important parameter for civil engineering construction and cannot be ignored thus different technique are used to minimize the strength reduction in cement composite with the aim that maximum clay (25 %) can be used as pozzolana .Three different materials, Lime (4.5%), bagasse ash (7.5 %) and Multi wall carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) (0.0150%) are used along with clay content (21.5 %, 18.5 % & 24.98%) respectively in cement composite (mortar). The entire ternary blends are assessed for dry density, water absorption, Workability and Compressive strength. The results of all evaluated parameters confirmed that clay has all the potential to be used as replacement material for cement in construction projects.
Abstract:An incisional hernia is one of the most common complications of abdominal surgery. The incidence of an incisional hernia is about and the recurrence rates are reported as %-40. Meshes are commonly used to minimize the recurrence of hernia repair of all kind. Polypropylene mesh is cheaper than composite mesh and this is the reason of why it is the mostly preferred type of mesh. The type of mesh does not alter the type of complications and complications may occur even if years passed. Here we describe two cases of enterocutaneous fistula due to late migration of a composite dual mesh, 7 years and 4 years after incisional hernia repair, respectively.
Abstract:Assessment of Naturally occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (Al, Cr, As, Hg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) from drilling cuttings of six different layers in the subsurface of an oil well in the Niger-Delta. The assessment was carried out to estimate the radionuclides and heavy metals in the drilling cutting and also to evaluate the radiological risk posed by the radionuclides and the health risk posed by the heavy metals to the personnel and the general public. The radionuclide activities and heavy metals concentration of the samples was analyzed. The health hazard potential of human exposures to the metals, were estimated in terms of intensity and time using the USEPA recommended model. The average concentrations of the heavy metals present in the samples obtained from the formation zone, varied significantly and decreased in the order of Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > As > Hg. The mean activity concentration for the different radionuclides 238U, 232TH and 40K were 3.9,17.5 and 221.2 Bqkg-1 respectively. Comparison of this study with a previous study was done for different formation and it was observed that for sandstone, 238U was greater than the previous study while 232TH and 40K were less. The observation was the same with a shale formation but for a sandstone shale formation, the past study for 238U, 232TH and 40K was less than previous study. The radionuclides activities decreased over the layers in this order: Layer 2 > Layer 1 > Layer 4 > Layer 5 > Layer 3 > Layer 6 while the heavy metal concentration decreased in this order: Layer 5 > Layer 4 > Layer 3 > Layer 2 > Layer 1 > Layer 6. The risk assessment for the Annual Effective Dose Rate was greater than the allowable limit; while the exposure factor for heavy metal was within the allowable limit.
Abstract:Horticultural grafting is important in propagating conifers mainly because many species are hard to root, especially when using cuttings from mature trees. Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florins) was introduced in Albania in the last few years as an ornamental tree in public and private urban green spaces and is much in demand. Intergeneric grafts are rarely used in conifers. Few information there are regarding incense cedar grafting on other genus rootstock. Therefore, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of an intergeneric grafting on quality of ornamental incense cedar, which is little known in Albania. Scion preparation was made by taking the grown tops with a length of 8-10 cm from young C. decurrens ‘Aureovariegata’ plants. \nRootstock preparation was made from one-year-old mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) seedlings. First results showed that the height trend of grafted plant has grown slowly from 30 to 90 DAG (days after grafting), with a low increase of 4, 9 %; this can be explained because the plant grafted takes several days to match the scion and rootstock. \nRegarding Relative Growth Rate, it is observed a tendency that RGR scion is higher than RGR rootstock, which even gets negative values at 60 DAG; this tendency continues to be emphasized even more with the days after 90 DAG.\n At the end of our experimental work, we obtained 410 plants available to be planted in different soils of Albania with 82% successfully grafted.
Abstract:The technologies used in flap design and monitoring have progressed significantly in recent years. Extremely variable vascular anatomy, associated with the complexity of modern flaps, require dynamic, real-time intraoperative information about flap perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Unfortunately, most surgeons still evaluate flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience. Incorrect preoperative planning and intraoperative or postoperative assessment of perfusion leads to major complications for the patient. Nowadays, surgeons can use several systems capable of evaluating the flaps. The evaluation of the viability of a flap, especially in the case of clinical studies in which various substances are applied, that may or may not improve microcirculation is of certain importance. The purpose of this experimental study was to show that infrared thermography can be used as a non-invasive method to assess the flap survival and perfusion and to compare the use of various vasoactive drugs in improving the survival of skin flaps, on rats.
Abstract:Introduction:\nTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of localization-related epilepsy (LRE) in adults accounting for approximately 60-80% of all epilepsy patients. Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is much more common than neocortical TLE, and it means a heterogeneous spectrum of focal seizures that manifest clinically in structures of the medial temporal lobe, it is also known as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.\nHippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the histological finding we find most frequently in TLE. It is intractable between 50 and 70% of cases. Epilepsy of mesial origin is the most resistant to drugs and represents a challenge for the epileptologist and neurosurgeon.\n\nMaterial and Methods:\nThe design of this study is quasi-experimental, with a process: quantitative, qualitative, as well as a scope: descriptive, exploratory. \nObjective: To determine the hippocampal volumetry based on the degree of hippocampal lesional or non lesional, clinical evolution and socioeconomic data of adult patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy, together with imaging studies such as CT, MRI and EEG.\n• Inclusion criteria\n- Patients over 18 years of age with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.\n- Patients with the use of at least 3 different antiepileptic drugs and without clinical control of TLE.\n- Patients admitted to the HRAEB with TLE and complete clinical file.\n- Patients with complete clinical and imaging studies: CT, EEG, Wada test, (MRI).\nThe software 3D Slicer version 4.2 was used, as well as a manual segmentation of the hippocampus, in addition to the statistical program SPSS\nResults:\nThirty patients (100%) were found, 19 corresponding to female gender (63.3%), and 11 to male gender (36.7%). There is a greater distribution in the female sex of the patients studied. The epileptogenic focus of TLE was identified by EEG patterns in 20 patients (66.7%) in the left temporal lobe, and in 10 patients (33.3%) in the right temporal lobe. \nIn one patient hippocampal atrophy and hyperintensity in the region of amygdala was found (3.3%), in 1 patient hippocampal atrophy was found, increased FLAIR signal and increase the size of the shaft of the temporal region (3.3%). \nWe identified 11 patients who used 3 different antiepileptic drugs -AED- (36.7%), 14 patients used 4 different AED (46.7%), and 5 patients used 5 different AED (16.7%). Regarding the Wada test, the dominance of the Left Temporal Lobe is 20 patients (66.7%) and the dominance of the right temporal lobe is in 10 patients (33.3%).\nThe average of the left hippocampus is 1767.7583 mm3, and 1972.6713 mm3 of the right hippocampus, the median of the left hippocampus is 1746.0265 mm3, and 1900.5010 mm3 of the right hippocampus; the minimum value of the left hippocampus is 932.08 mm3, and the right hippocampus 1264.89 mm3; the maximum value of the left hippocampus is 2373.05 mm3, and the maximum value of the right hippocampus is 2758.52 mm3.\nA Pearson correlation is found between the left hippocampal volume and the right hippocampal volume. \n\nDiscussion: \nIn 17 patients, that is, in 56.1% there is hippocampal atrophy as the predominant finding individually or in combination with other findings, such as hippocampal atrophy together with the increase in the FLAIR signal, or hippocampal atrophy together with the increase in signal in T2, which are essential to identify by the neuroradiologist or neurosurgeon.\nThis volumetric, quantitative information, together with the clinical characteristics - Wada test - and the imaging - described above - allow us to be able to identify with precision, that despite the left hippocampal atrophy in 20 of the patients and the predominance of the Wada in themselves, the hippocampus remains with electrophysiological function, that is with functions (language and memory); and on the other hand, patients where no hippocampal activity is identified, nor the predominance of the Wada test (right hippocampus), the hippocampal resection can be performed, without the risk of causing an injury or leaving the patient with a permanent neurological sequel, such as be the loss of recent or medium-term memory, to mention any of them.\nIn contrast, in patients with a left hippocampal lesion and a predominance of the Wada test, a hippocampal transection (by the neurosurgeon) can be performed, that is, only perform one or several minimum sections, between 2 and 3 mm deep on the hippocampal surface to only partially disconnect that hippocampus and not cause its complete disconnection, in other words, prevent the dissemination of the electrophysiological stimulus, prevent its spread, to prevent the development of an epileptic crisis, which, although, will not completely cease seizures; the frequency and intensity of them will decrease.
Abstract:Drinking water has physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics that have been treated in order to guarantee its suitability for human consumption, as well as the INEN standard (Ecuadorian Technical Standard) considers that Salmonella and Listeria are the potential causes of diseases. In this study 100 samples of drinking water from the city of San Josï¿½ de Chimbo (Ecuador) were analyzed, the samples were initially filtered on petri dishes with nutrient agar for coliforms and incubated under controlled conditions for 24 hours after this period, the characteristic colonies Salmonella and Listeria were analyzed by Gram stain and biochemical tests. After the culture analysis and confirmation by microscopic and biochemical test, it was obtained that the prevalence of Salmonella was 10% and Listeria 15%. The highest number of contaminating samples were found in the sources of direct consumption, unlike the samples obtained directly from the slope that did not appear to be contaminated.
Abstract:Objectives: Rabbit coccidiosis is known to be a serious problem; it may be hepatic coccidiosis or intestinal coccidiosis because of Eimeria spp. inhabits the liver and intestine. Mortality due to coccidiosis causes huge economic loss. The current research was aimed to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis infection according to temperature, humidity, age and sex variations. Methods: A total of 112 rabbits were purchased from 12 different locations of Lahore. The faecal examination was performed carefully by different techniques i.e., direct smear, floatation etc. and the oocyst of Eimeria spp. was observed abundantly in rabbitsï¿½ faecal samples. Results: It was observed that females were slightly more susceptible (47.2%) than males (44.7%); also the incidence of coccidiosis was more pronounced in baby kits from 1-3 months (25.3%) as compared to adults (15.2%). According to the month wise analysis, the infection was more prevalent in the month of July, June, and March due to high (73.9%, 60.7% & 58.3%) humidity. Coccidiosis also caused changes in blood parameters like increases WBCs (20.8%), neutrophils (17.5%), monocytes (29.1%) and basophils (11.3%) while decreases RBCs (44.9%), Lymphocytes (18.3%) and Haemoglobin level (35.4%). However, eosinophils did not show any change in their percentage. Chemotherapy was done with allopathic and herbal drugs. Chemical drugs minimize OPG (Oocyst per Gram) dramatically i.e., Sulphadimidine sodium and toltrazuril showed 48% and 74.4% efficiency in decreasing OPG respectively. Herbal drugs i.e., Nigella sativa L. seeds (kalonji) in oil emulsion and in water suspension minimized the OPG (Oocyst per Gram) slowly 57% and 53.4% oocysts respectively in 14 days. Garlic extract showed 57.8 oocytes in faeces. Conclusions: The chemotherapy suggests that Toltrazuril is more efficient for quick action than Sulphadimidine Sodium. In the case of herbals, garlic and black seeds in oil emulsion are very effective than black seeds in water.
Abstract:With the recent popularity of Blockchain and other Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT), blockchain enabled smart contract has attracted tremendous research focus. However, the immutability of the blocks, where the smart contracts are stored, causes conflicts with the traditional Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) models usually followed by software engineers. This research article explores six traditional SDLC models, clearly identifying the conflicts in a table with the application of smart contracts and advocates that there is an urgent need to develop new standard model(s) to address the arising issues. The concept of both block immutability and contract is introduced. This is further set in historical context from legacy smart contracts and blockchain enabled smart contracts extending to the difference between “shallow smart contracts” and “deep smart contracts”. To conclude, the traditional SDLC models are unsuitable for blockchain enabled smart contract-based applications.