Abstract:There are various theoretical models regarding the determination of consumersï¿½ intention to use technology and the determinants of their use behaviors. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology-2 (UTAUT-2) model explains the variance in behavior intention and technology use variables in the search for a consumer-centric model. This research study aims to reveal the determinants and impacts of mobile banking use intention and use behavior within the context of Turkey. The data of the study was obtained from 684 participants aged 18 years or older in April-June 2018 via an online questionnaire survey using judgmental sampling method. As a result of the study, it is determined that trust, performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, price value, and habits have significant impacts on behavioral intention to use mobile banking, while habits and trust factors have impacts on both use behavior and behavioral intention. Furthermore, moderator impacts of trust and age as well as hedonic motivation and age on behavioral intention, whereas moderator impacts of habits and age on use behavior are determined. No significant association between the intention to use mobile banking and the use behavior is detected.
Abstract:Assessment of Naturally occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (Al, Cr, As, Hg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) from drilling cuttings of six different layers in the subsurface of an oil well in the Niger-Delta. The assessment was carried out to estimate the radionuclides and heavy metals in the drilling cutting and also to evaluate the radiological risk posed by the radionuclides and the health risk posed by the heavy metals to the personnel and the general public. The radionuclide activities and heavy metals concentration of the samples was analyzed. The health hazard potential of human exposures to the metals, were estimated in terms of intensity and time using the USEPA recommended model. The average concentrations of the heavy metals present in the samples obtained from the formation zone, varied significantly and decreased in the order of Al > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > As > Hg. The mean activity concentration for the different radionuclides 238U, 232TH and 40K were 3.9,17.5 and 221.2 Bqkg-1 respectively. Comparison of this study with a previous study was done for different formation and it was observed that for sandstone, 238U was greater than the previous study while 232TH and 40K were less. The observation was the same with a shale formation but for a sandstone shale formation, the past study for 238U, 232TH and 40K was less than previous study. The radionuclides activities decreased over the layers in this order: Layer 2 > Layer 1 > Layer 4 > Layer 5 > Layer 3 > Layer 6 while the heavy metal concentration decreased in this order: Layer 5 > Layer 4 > Layer 3 > Layer 2 > Layer 1 > Layer 6. The risk assessment for the Annual Effective Dose Rate was greater than the allowable limit; while the exposure factor for heavy metal was within the allowable limit.
Abstract:Horticultural grafting is important in propagating conifers mainly because many species are hard to root, especially when using cuttings from mature trees. Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florins) was introduced in Albania in the last few years as an ornamental tree in public and private urban green spaces and is much in demand. Intergeneric grafts are rarely used in conifers. Few information there are regarding incense cedar grafting on other genus rootstock. Therefore, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of an intergeneric grafting on quality of ornamental incense cedar, which is little known in Albania. Scion preparation was made by taking the grown tops with a length of 8-10 cm from young C. decurrens ‘Aureovariegata’ plants. \nRootstock preparation was made from one-year-old mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) seedlings. First results showed that the height trend of grafted plant has grown slowly from 30 to 90 DAG (days after grafting), with a low increase of 4, 9 %; this can be explained because the plant grafted takes several days to match the scion and rootstock. \nRegarding Relative Growth Rate, it is observed a tendency that RGR scion is higher than RGR rootstock, which even gets negative values at 60 DAG; this tendency continues to be emphasized even more with the days after 90 DAG.\n At the end of our experimental work, we obtained 410 plants available to be planted in different soils of Albania with 82% successfully grafted.
Abstract:The technologies used in flap design and monitoring have progressed significantly in recent years. Extremely variable vascular anatomy, associated with the complexity of modern flaps, require dynamic, real-time intraoperative information about flap perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Unfortunately, most surgeons still evaluate flap perfusion and viability based solely on clinical experience. Incorrect preoperative planning and intraoperative or postoperative assessment of perfusion leads to major complications for the patient. Nowadays, surgeons can use several systems capable of evaluating the flaps. The evaluation of the viability of a flap, especially in the case of clinical studies in which various substances are applied, that may or may not improve microcirculation is of certain importance. The purpose of this experimental study was to show that infrared thermography can be used as a non-invasive method to assess the flap survival and perfusion and to compare the use of various vasoactive drugs in improving the survival of skin flaps, on rats.
Abstract:Introduction:\nTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of localization-related epilepsy (LRE) in adults accounting for approximately 60-80% of all epilepsy patients. Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is much more common than neocortical TLE, and it means a heterogeneous spectrum of focal seizures that manifest clinically in structures of the medial temporal lobe, it is also known as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.\nHippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the histological finding we find most frequently in TLE. It is intractable between 50 and 70% of cases. Epilepsy of mesial origin is the most resistant to drugs and represents a challenge for the epileptologist and neurosurgeon.\n\nMaterial and Methods:\nThe design of this study is quasi-experimental, with a process: quantitative, qualitative, as well as a scope: descriptive, exploratory. \nObjective: To determine the hippocampal volumetry based on the degree of hippocampal lesional or non lesional, clinical evolution and socioeconomic data of adult patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy, together with imaging studies such as CT, MRI and EEG.\n• Inclusion criteria\n- Patients over 18 years of age with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy.\n- Patients with the use of at least 3 different antiepileptic drugs and without clinical control of TLE.\n- Patients admitted to the HRAEB with TLE and complete clinical file.\n- Patients with complete clinical and imaging studies: CT, EEG, Wada test, (MRI).\nThe software 3D Slicer version 4.2 was used, as well as a manual segmentation of the hippocampus, in addition to the statistical program SPSS\nResults:\nThirty patients (100%) were found, 19 corresponding to female gender (63.3%), and 11 to male gender (36.7%). There is a greater distribution in the female sex of the patients studied. The epileptogenic focus of TLE was identified by EEG patterns in 20 patients (66.7%) in the left temporal lobe, and in 10 patients (33.3%) in the right temporal lobe. \nIn one patient hippocampal atrophy and hyperintensity in the region of amygdala was found (3.3%), in 1 patient hippocampal atrophy was found, increased FLAIR signal and increase the size of the shaft of the temporal region (3.3%). \nWe identified 11 patients who used 3 different antiepileptic drugs -AED- (36.7%), 14 patients used 4 different AED (46.7%), and 5 patients used 5 different AED (16.7%). Regarding the Wada test, the dominance of the Left Temporal Lobe is 20 patients (66.7%) and the dominance of the right temporal lobe is in 10 patients (33.3%).\nThe average of the left hippocampus is 1767.7583 mm3, and 1972.6713 mm3 of the right hippocampus, the median of the left hippocampus is 1746.0265 mm3, and 1900.5010 mm3 of the right hippocampus; the minimum value of the left hippocampus is 932.08 mm3, and the right hippocampus 1264.89 mm3; the maximum value of the left hippocampus is 2373.05 mm3, and the maximum value of the right hippocampus is 2758.52 mm3.\nA Pearson correlation is found between the left hippocampal volume and the right hippocampal volume. \n\nDiscussion: \nIn 17 patients, that is, in 56.1% there is hippocampal atrophy as the predominant finding individually or in combination with other findings, such as hippocampal atrophy together with the increase in the FLAIR signal, or hippocampal atrophy together with the increase in signal in T2, which are essential to identify by the neuroradiologist or neurosurgeon.\nThis volumetric, quantitative information, together with the clinical characteristics - Wada test - and the imaging - described above - allow us to be able to identify with precision, that despite the left hippocampal atrophy in 20 of the patients and the predominance of the Wada in themselves, the hippocampus remains with electrophysiological function, that is with functions (language and memory); and on the other hand, patients where no hippocampal activity is identified, nor the predominance of the Wada test (right hippocampus), the hippocampal resection can be performed, without the risk of causing an injury or leaving the patient with a permanent neurological sequel, such as be the loss of recent or medium-term memory, to mention any of them.\nIn contrast, in patients with a left hippocampal lesion and a predominance of the Wada test, a hippocampal transection (by the neurosurgeon) can be performed, that is, only perform one or several minimum sections, between 2 and 3 mm deep on the hippocampal surface to only partially disconnect that hippocampus and not cause its complete disconnection, in other words, prevent the dissemination of the electrophysiological stimulus, prevent its spread, to prevent the development of an epileptic crisis, which, although, will not completely cease seizures; the frequency and intensity of them will decrease.
Abstract:Drinking water has physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics that have been treated in order to guarantee its suitability for human consumption, as well as the INEN standard (Ecuadorian Technical Standard) considers that Salmonella and Listeria are the potential causes of diseases. In this study 100 samples of drinking water from the city of San Josï¿½ de Chimbo (Ecuador) were analyzed, the samples were initially filtered on petri dishes with nutrient agar for coliforms and incubated under controlled conditions for 24 hours after this period, the characteristic colonies Salmonella and Listeria were analyzed by Gram stain and biochemical tests. After the culture analysis and confirmation by microscopic and biochemical test, it was obtained that the prevalence of Salmonella was 10% and Listeria 15%. The highest number of contaminating samples were found in the sources of direct consumption, unlike the samples obtained directly from the slope that did not appear to be contaminated.
Abstract:Objectives: Rabbit coccidiosis is known to be a serious problem; it may be hepatic coccidiosis or intestinal coccidiosis because of Eimeria spp. inhabits the liver and intestine. Mortality due to coccidiosis causes huge economic loss. The current research was aimed to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis infection according to temperature, humidity, age and sex variations. Methods: A total of 112 rabbits were purchased from 12 different locations of Lahore. The faecal examination was performed carefully by different techniques i.e., direct smear, floatation etc. and the oocyst of Eimeria spp. was observed abundantly in rabbitsï¿½ faecal samples. Results: It was observed that females were slightly more susceptible (47.2%) than males (44.7%); also the incidence of coccidiosis was more pronounced in baby kits from 1-3 months (25.3%) as compared to adults (15.2%). According to the month wise analysis, the infection was more prevalent in the month of July, June, and March due to high (73.9%, 60.7% & 58.3%) humidity. Coccidiosis also caused changes in blood parameters like increases WBCs (20.8%), neutrophils (17.5%), monocytes (29.1%) and basophils (11.3%) while decreases RBCs (44.9%), Lymphocytes (18.3%) and Haemoglobin level (35.4%). However, eosinophils did not show any change in their percentage. Chemotherapy was done with allopathic and herbal drugs. Chemical drugs minimize OPG (Oocyst per Gram) dramatically i.e., Sulphadimidine sodium and toltrazuril showed 48% and 74.4% efficiency in decreasing OPG respectively. Herbal drugs i.e., Nigella sativa L. seeds (kalonji) in oil emulsion and in water suspension minimized the OPG (Oocyst per Gram) slowly 57% and 53.4% oocysts respectively in 14 days. Garlic extract showed 57.8 oocytes in faeces. Conclusions: The chemotherapy suggests that Toltrazuril is more efficient for quick action than Sulphadimidine Sodium. In the case of herbals, garlic and black seeds in oil emulsion are very effective than black seeds in water.
Abstract:With the recent popularity of Blockchain and other Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT), blockchain enabled smart contract has attracted tremendous research focus. However, the immutability of the blocks, where the smart contracts are stored, causes conflicts with the traditional Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) models usually followed by software engineers. This research article explores six traditional SDLC models, clearly identifying the conflicts in a table with the application of smart contracts and advocates that there is an urgent need to develop new standard model(s) to address the arising issues. The concept of both block immutability and contract is introduced. This is further set in historical context from legacy smart contracts and blockchain enabled smart contracts extending to the difference between “shallow smart contracts” and “deep smart contracts”. To conclude, the traditional SDLC models are unsuitable for blockchain enabled smart contract-based applications.
Abstract:The aim of this study was to determine the influence of shoots type and light intensity on plantlets rooting and duration of seedling preparation for transplantation of a red carnation cultivar (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The study was conducted during two consecutive years, 2017-2019, at the Flowers Greenhouse under the ownership of Mehmet Loci in Fushë Kruja, at the central part of Albania. Two different types of shoots, semi-hardwood shoots and green shoots, as well as two different light intensities, natural light intensity (with an mean of 14367 lux) and reduced light intensity (with an mean of 1574 lux), with 5 replication with 104 shoots, 3.5 and 4 cm in length, for each replication, were used in both years. Green and semi-hardwood shoots were placed for rooting in small styrofoam boxes (0.010 liters) filled with perlite-peat mixture (60:40), under controlled environmental conditions (18±2oC and 70±5% RH). Observed results showed that both factors, shoots type and light intensity, had significantly influenced the rooting ability and the duration period of transplantation of seedlings. Rooting percentage of plantlets for semi-hardwood shoots was 63% and 45%, while for green shoots, rooting percentage of plantlets was 86% and 68% at natural light intensity (with an mean of 14367 lux) and reduced light intensity (with an mean of 1574 lux), respectively. Duration of the period planting to root initiation was 19 and 21 days for green shoots and 13 and 16 days for for semi-hardwood shoots, at 14367 lux and 1574 lux light intensity, respectively. Plantlets were ready for the permanent transplantation after 39-42 days for green shoots and after 28-31 days for semi-hardwood shoots, at 14367 lux and 1574 lux light intensity, respectively. The use of semi-hardwood shoots has significantly accelerated rooting and transplantation duration by 11 days compared to green shoots, for the same light intensity level. Results showed that there exists a strong negative correlation between the light intensity, rooting initiation, and transplantation period (r = -0.93576278 and r = -0.916217561, respectively), while, between rooting initiation duration, transplantation period, and rooting percentage exists a strong positive correlation (r = +0.983803957 and r = +0.965430639), which means that the acceleration of rooting initiation significantly affect the acceleration of transplantation and the number of seedlings. Relationship between shoots type, light intensity, and rooting percentage was significant and statistically confirmed by ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05).
Abstract:Abstract: Tarbela is one of the worldï¿½s largest water resources development projects. The Project is the capstone of the Indus Basin Treaty providing improved supply of water to millions of acres of irrigated land in Pakistan as well as generating electricity and providing some control of floods. Its continuing effective operation is vital to the economy of Pakistan and the wellbeing of its population. The high sediment load of the Indus River is associated with the snowmelt runoff that usually begins to enter Tarbela reservoir in late April to mid-June when the reservoir is at minimum elevation. The yearly bathymetric surveys of the reservoir undertaken by WAPDA have revealed that the sediment delta has progressed to about 4.05 miles (6.7 km) from the dam where the elevation of the delta pivot point is about 1384 ft. a.s.l. The sedimentation of the reservoir has resulted in: loss of storage as well as concerns that the advancing fore-set slope of the sediment delta may cause clogging of the low-level tunnelï¿½s intakes. This problem may be significantly advanced by seismic induced liquefaction of the fore-set slope. Large hue and cry of energy shortage in the country has forced the authorities to find different short-term ways and means to overcome the situation. Besides exploring other means, conversion of irrigation tunnels number 4 and 5 of Tarbela Dam into high level power tunnels was considered as one of the options for generation of cheap hydel power (2820 MW and 1410 MW respectively). This study facilitated by Tarbela management, was necessitated and undertaken to find adverse effects of this structural change upon the sediment flushing and overall disturbance of sedimentation pattern of Tarbela reservoir. The study consisted of two phases. First phase included field sediment sampling from tunnel intake areas conducted for almost whole year of 2018, quantifying the sediment and establishing correlation between suspended sediment of the reservoir with the outgoing flushed sediment through low level outlets and thereby developing an empirical equation to forecast the anticipated sediment flushing through proposed high level intakes while in the second phase model study was conducted using modeling software ï¿½Flow3Dï¿½ to simulate the sediment flow through lower and proposed upper level intakes to verify the results obtained through empirical equations. Results obtained from the study revealed 60 to 65 percent reduction in sediment flushing when high level intakes are used for power generation. It is expected that study/research would be having a contribution in field in view of the latest innovations/research in this area of Water Resource Engineering.