Abstract:Highway projects are facing cost overrun is a common problem in developing countries, including Pakistan. This research paper identified the major cost overrun factors faced by highway projects in Pakistan also provides recommendations to reduce the cost overrun. To attain the objective of this research, the first in-depth literature review was conducted, which helped to identify 33 common cost overrun factors. Secondly, a structured questionnaire was established and among stakeholders of the construction sector to share feedback about the major cost overrun factors. Results showed that stakeholders of highway projects (consultant, contractor and client) have a different perception of cost overrun. After identification of major cost overrun factors, interviews were carried among mostly experienced stakeholders for mitigation and control measures. This research delivers a better understanding of major cost overrun factors. Also, it provides recommendations to stakeholders of highway projects as well as other professionals of Pakistan to control cost overrun.
Abstract:Title: “Evaluation of safe blood transfusion practice by assessing haemovigilance among healthcare professionals: An Institutional study”\nIntroduction : Haemovigilance program of India (HvPI) was initiated in the year 2012 and is continuous process of data collection and analysis of transfusion – relates adverse reactions in order to investigate their causes and outcomes to prevent recurrence. The present study was done to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of haemovigilance among doctors and health care providers (HCP). The information thus collected would facilitate corrective and preventive actions to be taken to minimie the potential risk associated with blood collection processing and transfusion to patients.\nAims and Objectives:\na) To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of HCP regarding haemovigilance. \nb) To identify the factors which either encourage or discourage transfusion reaction reporting.\nc) Generate evidence based recommendation and create awareness amongst the HCP.\n Methods: It is a cross sectional, prevalidated questionnaire based study carried out among 405 doctors and health care providers in our hospital after obtaining their consent.\nResults: The response rate of the results was 98%. 70% of the responders had poor knowledge whereas, 10% of the responders had good knowledge about HvPI. The awareness of reporting of the transfusion reactions was unsatisfactory with only 21% of the responders having the adequate and relevant information.\nConclusions: In order to improve HvPI, it is essential to improve KAP of the HCP. This study will not directly benefit the participants, but their knowledge and practice will safeguard the wellbeing and healthcare of society. The understanding of KAP regarding HvPI among the HCP is the highest standing determinant of their active participation in HvPI implementation. Hence the present study has been done using the KAP model as a survey tool.
Abstract:The protective effect of 20% ethanol-treated oocysts of Eimeria species against coccidiosis in layer chickens was investigated in the present study. Local eimerian oocysts were treated with 20% ethanol during and after sporulation for 48 h. A total of 180 male layer chicks were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (G1, a negative control group without treatment or infection); group 2 (G2, a positive control group) received untreated sporulated oocysts at 21 days old; group 3 (G3) was inoculated orally with 1x104 non -treated sporulated oocysts at 4 days old; group 4 (G4) and group 5 (G5) were administered 20% ethanol-treated unsporulated oocysts (sporulate during treatment) (1x104) or 20% ethanol- treated-sporulated oocysts (1x104). All groups except G1 were challenged at day 21 of age with 7.5×104 untreated sporulated oocysts as a single dose. At day 7 post-immunization, chicks in G4 and G5 showed less severity of bloody diarrhea in a significant manner and a decreased number of oocysts were shed, which were not able to sporulate. Post-challenge results showed that G4 and G5 birds with mild bloody diarrhea and cecal lesions, with a lower number of oocysts, and better body weight gain than in G2 birds. Moreover, birds which were inoculated with ethanol-treated oocysts had higher levels of cytokines post-challenge than controls (G2 and G3). In conclusion, the treatment of oocysts with 20% ethanol provided a certain level of protection against Eimeria infection.
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To measure and compare the expression of miRNA 210-5p, miR-195-5p, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) in the preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. To check the correlation of miRNA-210-5p and miR-195-5p with mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in preeclampsia. METHODS: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of cell biology and physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore from November 2017 till December 2018. Diagnosed cases of preeclampsia with age matched normotensive women were the study participants. All the participants were in third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression of miRNA 210-5p, miR-195-5p, Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1). Threshold cycle values were recorded and used to calculate fold change using 2-??ct method. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The expression level of miRNA 210-5p and miR-195-5p was increased in the preeclamptic group by a 2.97 and 1.57 fold respectively. Upregulated miR-210-5p and 195-5p showed an inverse correlation with VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR2 and a strong positive correlation with sFlt-1 (p value<0.001). CONCLUSION: The study concludes that upregulated miRNA-195-5p and miR-210-5p along with differentially expressed angiogenic VEGF and its receptors might play an important role in deregulation of angiogenesis involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
Abstract:Geothermal energy sources are widely used for heating as well as for cooling applications. Low energy houses are prefered for this kind of energy source because of its benefits. In this work it has been investigated a groud source heat pump (GSHP) that is connected to ventilo-convector units (VCUs) for active heating. For cooling it has been investigated passive cooling that presents a low energy consumption close to zero, only the pumping energy is necessary. The initial building has no insulation and gas boiler with low efficiency for DHW and heating purposses. For all the simulations Designbuilder software has been used, that presents detailed energy consumption for all types of consumers from the studied building: heating, cooling, lighting, and domestic hot water production. The type and caracteristics of soil is introduced from other measured boreholes, from Bucharest, with Thermal Response Test (TRT) method.
Abstract:In the present study, a pin fin with constant base and tip temperatures is analyzed and optimized using a two-dimensional analytical method. The study verifies that the heat loss from the fin surface is equal to the sum of the heat transfers through the left (fin base) and right (fin tip) bases. The heat loss from the fin, the heat transfer through the left base, and the heat transfer through the right base are presented as a function of the fin length, the right base temperature, the fin radius, and the convection characteristic number. For fixed fin volumes, the maximum heat loss, corresponding fin length, and fin radius are shown as a function of the fin volume and the convection characteristic number. One of results shows that the heat loss from the fin, the heat transfer through the left base, and the heat transfer through the right base all vary linearly with the variation of the right base temperature.
Abstract:Abstract \nBone thickness measured ultrasonically, requires knowledge of its velocity and its propagation-timealomg a path in the bone. This velocity is required to define intraoperatively the residual thickness of bone, which is in front of an inserted hardware (a drill, or an implant).There is a special importance in these measurements, during the ‘final stage’ of the insertion, when the residual thickness gets smaller. \nThe general problem being addressed by this study is to assess intraoperatively the intraosseous speed-of-sound. We present here and compare three novel methods for assessing intraoperatively the speed-of-sound in trabecular bone.\nThese methods are based on ultrasonic waves that propagate in both directions through a tiny stream of normal saline. Part of these echoes are detected by the same ultrasonic transducer. For assessing the ultrasonic speed-of-sound, these methods require additional drilled path, measured mechanically and its accuracy is smaller than the propagation time. In two of these methods, the assessed speed-of-sound depends on the accuracy of the additional drilled path and the propagation time, where in the third method, it depends only on the propagation time. Therefore, the second method is more accurate. \nOne of the methods provides the ultrasonic speed-of-sound (and therefore the residual thickness) in real-time. The signal processing and displaying the data are automatic in these methods; therefore, it is less human-dependent and more objective.\nThese methods have the potential in applications of skeletal surgeries (orthopedic, neurosurgery and also in dentistry), as they improve the time, objectivity and residual thickness accuracy during such surgical procedures.
Abstract:Abstract\nBackground & Objective: Emotional Intelligence promotes organizational creativity, improves the ability to communicate with yourself and others, and ultimately enhances job performance. This paper is intended to evaluate the EI level among personnel based on the hospitals’ type of ownership. Materials & Methods: A descriptive, analytical study was performed within a cross-sectional setting in 2019 on 2850 personnel of five selected hospitals in Mazandaran province (Iran) with different ownerships. Standard Shearing\'s EI 33-item questionnaire was used. Six hundred questionnaires were distributed among participants. Data were analyzed in SPSS 22 using One Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) with post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). \nResults: Five hundred sixty-nine questionnaires were completed with a mean response rate of 94.8%. Mean EI scores among personnel of therapeutic, private, educational, and social security hospitals were 110.74 ± 14.72, 119.09 ± 16.40, 112.06 ± 11.49 and 117.40 ± 13.90, respectively, indicating a significant relationship among hospitals (P=0.001). The highest mean EI scores were observed among personnel of social security hospital in terms of self-motivation (24.3 ± 92.67), consciousness (30.4 ± 51.53), social consciousness (21.3 ± 04.26), social skills (17.3 ± 44.02), and self-mastery (23.3 ± 49.56). Conclusion: The EI level among social security hospital personnel was higher than that of educational and therapeutic centers, and therapeutic and private hospitals.\nKeywords: Hospitals, Emotional Intelligence, Ownership
Abstract:BACKGROUND: \nBlood Bank plays a crucial role in healthcare settings. So , Proper donor selection must be done by using a formulated selection criteria for ensuring safety of recipients and donors. Selection of Plateletpheresis donors is challenging as donor selection criteria includes various different parameters.\nAIM: \n• To analyze the reasons for deferral of apheresis donors. \n• For planning more competent recruitment strategies and donor selection criteria.\n• Promotion of voluntary blood donation and donor recruitment.\nMETHODS:\nThis retrospective observational study was carried out in the our blood centre under department of Pathology for a period of one year (November 2018 to December 2019).\nA detailed history was taken and the donors were selected as per the departmental Standard operating procedures for plateletpheresis which includes the following criterias: donor’s selection weight> 60kg, age 18-65 years, at least 2 months from last whole blood donation or 3 days from last Plateletpheresis, blood group estimation, adequate venous access, hemoglobin > 12.5g/dl. Platelet count >2 lakh/dl, with no consumption of NSAIDs for the last seven days and should be non-reactive for transfusion transmitted infections markers.\nRESULTS: Among a total of 200 donors 50 donors was deferred due to various reasons. The commonest cause of donor deferral most common causes of donor deferral were a low platelet count (<2 Lakh/dl) (37.5%) followed in frequency by poor venous access (16.6%) , low hemoglobin (14.5%) and whole blood donation in last 2 months (8.33%). Other important reasons include history of drug intake, history of snake bite and upper respiratory tract infection. \nCONCLUSION : Due to the scarcity of apheresis donors in our country, we are of the opinion that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to accommodate more donors and reduce deferral rate without compromising on the health of the donors. Donor deferred due to temporary causes must be adequately counseled to encourage them for further donations.
Abstract:Numerical modeling is a time saving and cost-effective alternate of experimental evaluation of structural members. On the other hand, green concrete being of the day is active area of research. Therefore, this research paper presents the numerical modeling of RC green concrete beams under sustained loading. The green concrete was produced using 50% replacement of natural coarse aggregates with demolished old concrete. Multi-variable regression analysis was adopted to predict the numerical equations for long-term deflection and strain from the experimental data of the parameters due to 6-, 9- and 12-month long term loading. Three software NCSS, MATLAB and Microsoft EXCEL were used for the purpose. To check and validate the developed equations six beams were cast using 50% replacement of natural coarse aggregates. Fifty percent of the beams were tested for each 2- and 3-month sustained loading. The obtained results were compared with the results from numerical equations. It is observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with experimental observations with maximum of 10.34% error. Therefore, the numerical equations for deflection and strain presented in this article can be used to estimate the parameters of RC green concrete beams due to long-term sustained loading.