Abstract:This paper analyzed technology transfer in university-industry collaboration. The problem that motivated the study was that developing countries, with their limited financial capabilities, face the challenge of creating appropriate environment that could facilitate the creation and commercialization of technologies. Moreover, the recognition of poor scientific outputs as a hindrance to the growth of domestic industry has brought research on the development agenda because of low technological standards in the developing world. However, this poses for strong collaborations in the developing and developed world to promote a competitive edge comparable with the developed world. This would produce competitive local graduates for the global job market. The objectives were to identify the technology transfer barriers in order to strategize in the university curricula and match the global standards. The following research questions guided the study: 1. how best could industry complement university curricula?2. What different kind of mechanisms are used for transferring technology and how best can outstanding strategies be introduced for optimum collaboration with the developed world? Based on review of literature, it was evident that transfer of technology is affected by numerous constraints that hinder efficient technology transfer, thus impeding the development of innovative entrepreneurship. Following the qualitative approach, a sample of 3 universities, 3 intermediary organizations and a sample of 15 information technology companies participated in the study through interviews. The findings revealed that there is a discrepancy in technology between countries, requiring strategic partnerships to merge the discovery-driven culture of the university with the innovation on-driven environment of the industry thereby posing the need for powerful collaborations between industry and university. From a developing country perspective, very little is known about the technology transfer process, especially the mechanisms, barriers, and incentives of this process. The study will help to improve the understanding of the current process of technology transfer, while concentrating on the incentives and barriers to transferring technology from universities to industry.
Abstract:If teacher professional development programmes are not achieving what they are meant to achieve and teachers are not changing their practice, the end result is poor participation in the classroom from both teachers and their learners hence no improvement in learner performance. The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of teachers on the effectiveness of current teacher professional development programmes being offered in one province in South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative interpretive research methodology. Data was collected through individual interviews with teachers and school principals. Findings depicted that more training should be provided for teaching, use of technological devices and involvement of teachers in curriculum development should be enhanced. It was also found that including technology in TPD training would help enhance the training programmes. Teachers should ensure they get acquainted with all facilities required in the TPD programmes. Principals should organise training seminars and workshops on the application of discipline strategies/methods, management strategies and intervention programmes.
Abstract:Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the link between the physical activity (PA) and cognitive function among the elderly in the health and social centers in kenitra , Rabat and Sidi kacem city (Morocco)..\nMaterials and methods: This study was conducted among 172 elderly (56,4% men ) aged above 60 years (67,53 ± 7,53)in the health and social centers in kenitra , Rabat and Sidi kacem city (Morocco). Cognitive functions were assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (Normal: MMSE’s score > 24 and cognitive impairment (CI) : MMSE’s score ≤ 24 ) .The physical activity (PA) was evaluated using the GPAQ (Global Physical Activity Questionnaire), ranking the elderly by high, moderate and limited level of PA. The binary logistic regression was performed by the cognitive function (dependent variable), and PA level (independent variable).\nResults: The elderly people with cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24 tend to practice less walking and cycling activities (P=0.005). However no difference was found between normal and cognitively impaired subjects for all other subtypes of PA (P> 0.05). The binary logistic regression adjusted for gender, education, profession, pension, depression and nutritional status reveled that only the moderate level of PA was a protective factor against cognitive impairment compared to limited level (ORa = -1.979, 95% CI: 0.04-0.41)(ORa: Adjusted Odd Ratio ; 95% CI: 95% of Confidence Interval).\nConclusion: Our finding demonstrates that moderate PA specially walking or cycling is associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. This indicates that a regular practice of walking or cycling as PA can play an important role for cognitive impairment prevention. And the necessity for further researches to more understands this association.
Abstract:Strategies to improve compost quality will be continuously needed. The main components of composting technology include organic materials and microorganisms – the agents of this process. In this work we studied how the addition of a microbial suspension of fungal strains, isolated fungi and bacteria from vegetable waste as plant substrate, as well as of thermophilic actinomycetes isolated from soil, could improve enzymatic activity and hence biodegradability and compost quality. The levels of activities of key enzymes involved in the biodegradation of plant waste products were studied and a collection of microorganisms was created, capable of assimilating plant waste as only carbon and nitrogen source and suitable to be added to the compost. The results indicate that the activities of cellulose-degrading enzymes change after treatment with addition of different inocula as follows: cellulose activity- Trichoderma longebrahiatum > Trametes versicolor ≈ Trichoderma viridae ≈ F4 > F2 > F1 ≈ P6 > Р1 ≈ P5 > A3 ≈ A5 > Control; endoxylanase- Trichoderma longebrahiatum ≈ Trametes versicolor > Trichoderma viridae > Rhizopus oryzae ≈ P4 ≈ F6 ≈ P2 ≈ P1 ≈ A3 > Control, where F are mesophilic fungal isolates; P-bacterial isolates; A-thermophilic actinomycete isolates.
Abstract:Abiotic stress is the main source of danger for many crop plants. Salinity and droughts are the most common categories of this stress all over the world. In this study, Transformation of EsWRKY11 in Oryza sativa (Giza 177) enhanced salt tolerance at the seedling stage. As Oryza satvia plant is considered one of the most important crops, it ranks the most second important cereal in the world. Oryza satvia production represents 30% of the world’s cereal production today. After many searches, it was found that the WRKY transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant abiotic stress responses. In this study, the WRKY transcription factor EsWRKY11, containing the plant-specific WRKY zinc finger DNA-binding motif, was isolated from Eruca sativa. The source of the WRKY11 gene is members of family Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Eruca sativa. Nanoparticles are a new trend technique applied for gene transformation. For example, chitosan nanoparticles are biocompatible, biodegradable, and give high transformation efficiency. The transformed EsWRKY11 gene was detected in rice transgenic lines. EsWRKY11 was upregulated in response to a variety of abiotic stresses, including salinity, alkalinity, cold, abscisic acid, and drought. Micropropagation tissue culture technique was used for the multiplication of both transgenic and non-transgenic rice lines. Transgenic Oryza sativa L. had a better salt-tolerant phenotype, and the hypocotyls were significantly longer than those of non-transgenic seeds after salt and drought treatment.
Abstract:The Rosa webbiana Wall ex.Royle belongs to the family Rosaceae that consist of about 200 species, which are distributed all the way through the temperate and sub-tropical habitats of the northern hemisphere. Most of the wild rose species are found in Asia. Two new and three known compounds were obtained from Rosa webbiana. The family is famous for ethno-medicinal uses, therefore, we elected Rosa webbiana Wall ex.Royle for the isolation of molecular-constituents to correlate the ethno-medicinal properties with the isolated constituents. During our conventional attempt for isolation two new compounds; (E)-1-(3-butyl-2, 4, 6-trimethylcyclohexyl)-5-phenylpent-2-ene-1, 4-diol (1) and N, N-bis (2-ethylhexyl)-2-(phenylthio) acetamide (2) and three known compounds; Isonicotinic acid, undecyl ester, 4-Butylbenzoic acid (3), 4-methoxy-2-methylbutyl ester (4) and Linoleamide (5) were purified and characterized using modern techniques the nuclear magnet resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The new molecular-constituents (1 and 2) were tested against asthma using PatchDock server and it was found that the constituent (1) was more effective against asthma, thus it is confirmed that the plant may be used against asthma.
Abstract:Chronic liver disease (CLD) refers to a structural and functional change of the liver, which modifies the pharmacokinetics of multiple drugs, including hypoglycemic agents. This alteration depends on the severity degree of the liver disease, clinical characteristics of the patient, and comorbidities presence such as kidney disease and drug biochemistry. Insulin is considered a safe therapeutic strategy in patients with CLD, however, for many oral hypoglycemic agents, its use and dose adjustment will depend on the Child-Pugh score, taking into account the high risk of hypoglycemia of this type of patients
Abstract:ABSTRACTRomania has a high tourism potential, but the performances do not rise to the same level. Having in view the position of the Romanian tourism in the international competition, there is an urgent need for new strategies and specific policies for the rehabilitation of this branch, and this is one of the objectives of the present research. There were rehabilitation intentions in the years before, mainly after Romaniaï¿½s accession to the EU, but the results were not those expected. From these reasons, we would like to analyze the main factors that have influenced the evolution of Romanian tourism, the strategies and policies elaborated in the past, which are the main directions in tourism development and what kind of programs the Government must promote to increase the competitiveness of this sector. We made a statistical analysis based on NIS and Eurostat official databases and a qualitative analysis of the main official documents elaborated by authorities in the field. The results will show us which are the determinants of the present competitiveness and which are the best strategies, policies and programs for the future.
Abstract:Small scale farmers, manure, an-organic fertilizers, red skin potato yields
Abstract:The objective of the in vitro study conducted was to investigate the relationship between the surface treatment of fiber posts with 30% H2O2 (with and without silanization) and the type of cements used for their fixation on the level of micropermeability. \nMaterial and methods: The study used 120 single-rooted extracted teeth, which underwent endodontic treatment after cross-cutting of the teeth 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups of 30 teeth, depending on the upcoming processing of the fiber posts (Dentin Post) I: H2O2 30% + silane; II: H2O2 30%; III: Silane; IV: Saline solution (control group).3 subgroups were formed for each group, depending on the used adhesives and composite cements (x 10): 1. 5-th generation adhesive + dual-polymerizing cement (Nexus NX3); 2. 6-th generation adhesive + dual-polymerizing cement (Nexus NX3); 3. Self-adhesive cement (Maxcem elite). Specimens were dyed for 24 hours in a 2% solution of methylene blue after that they were sectioned longitudinally through the middle. The level of micropermeability of the dye was measured.Data were analyzed statistically. Results: In all main groups, we have evidence of micropermeability. There was a statistically significant difference recorded between the control group (surface treatment with saline) and all other groups (р˂0.05). The lowest micropermeability was demonstrated by the main group in which the fiber post surface was treated with H2O2 30% + silane. The values are insignificant compared to the other two groups: treatment of the post surface only with H2O2 and only with silane (р˃0.05). In the analysis of the subgroups for each main group, we found a higher level of micropermeability in the self-adhesive cement, the difference is significant (р˂0.05) compared to the other sub-groups. In this case, a dual-polymerization cement in combination with 5-th and 6-th generation adhesives was used. No significant difference was found between these two groups. Conclusions: The surface treatment of the posts with 30% hydrogen peroxide makes the post surface more retentive, dissolving the epoxy matrix without damaging the exposed glass fibers. When cementing fiber posts, it is more appropriate to use dual-polymerizing cements combined with 5th or 6th generation adhesive systems. The obtained results do not give grounds to conclude which generation of adhesive system is more suitable for cementing fiber posts. Self-polymerizing cements are not the first choice when fixing fiber posts.